Tetouan in the shadow of the Rif was the capital of the Spanish protectorate from 1912 which they only abandoned on Moroccan independence in 1956. Originally Tamuda, a Mauretanian city founded in the 3rd century BC, the Romans who occupied it found the locals even then, rather mettlesome and after a revolt destroyed it. Today its Andalusian heritage is evident. Most people speak Spanish, but, besides Arabic, French is gradually gaining ground. It has a bustling Medina and several interesting museums.